Brain Based Ways of
Teaching & Learning
proposed for all students in Mr. Clemens' Science Classes
is a process, not a repository." -Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past
Brain Incorporated Teaching
research for learning and retention is vast.
Self consciousness places a premium on skills
that manage information and integrate thought rather than on rote memorization.
Intelligence- a property of the mind that resides in the brain -is about
innovation, which results from the novel associations of ideas found in
information gained from experiences. More information has been obtained about
how the brain learns in the past five years than in our entire human history. Until recently, we have had few clues to unlock the
secrets of the brain. Brain based research findings on how the brain
processes and accesses information has improved and revised our understanding of the
learning process. This provides a solid foundation on which I base my
educational decisions in teaching, and I continue to research better ways to
teach today's digital age students.
education works by a simple principal: contrast. If there is no difference
between what you already know and what is offered, there is no contrast and
there is no new learning.
Enrichment is key. Enrichment is a
positive biological response to a contrasting environment. An enriching
environment is where measurable, synergistic, and global changes have occurred
within the brain. Enrichment creates cortical imprinting needed to release the
acetylcholine (the common neurotransmitter known to help memory formation)
necessary to form memory to save the new learning. We need meaningful context
for an activity to get purposeful changes in the brain, and studies show that
more relevant, meaningful learning is better. Enrichment is synergistic -
enrichment can only be created, not offered. There are many forms of enrichment
from physical classroom environment to teacher enthusiasm to meaningful and
relevant academic content, which encourages and encourages student
the subject and the classroom.
Skills and knowledge learned in a classroom can be taken into the real world by
teaching and learning with brain science. Examples include:
The Power of Transfer.
"Transfer is the
basis of all creativity, problem solving, and the making of all satisfying
decisions." -Madeline Hunter, Mastery Teaching.
Transferal refers to how the skills and knowledge can be synthesized into the
real world of the student. It is the process that allows amazing inventiveness
to unfold. Transfer enables the ability to learn in one situation and then use
that learning in a modified or generalized form in another situation. Transfer
is the core to problem solving, creative and critical thinking.
Transfer can also be Positive and Negative. In Positive Transfer, past learning helps the learned deal with new learning. For example; a violin player and a trombone player both want to play the viola. Who will learn the new instrument more easily? The violin player already possesses the skills and knowledge that will help learn the viola. Negative Transfer interferes with the learner's understanding of new learning, often resulting in confusion and errors. For example, you have driven a car with automatic transmission for most of your driving career. You are placed in manual shift automobile and are asked to drive. Your left foot is not accustomed to plunging down the clutch, nor is your right foot accustomed to releasing itself from the gas pedal when you shift. You have great difficulty driving the manual shift car. The skill you used before is now interfering with the skill needed in the new situation, this is negative transfer. Studies show that students are often not successful in recognizing how the skills and knowledge they learned in school apply to new situations they encounter in other classes or outside school. For example, students often have difficulty transferring computational skills they learned in mathematics class to solving problems in science class. David Sousa wrote: "Rote learning does not tend to facilitate transfer, but learning with understanding does. Thus, trying to learn too many concepts too quickly may hinder transfer because the learner is simply memorizing isolated facts with little opportunity to organize the material in a meaningful fashion and link it to prior related knowledge." -David Sousa; How The Brain Learns 2007
Elements promoting transfer include:
Eric Jensen encouraging teachers to immerse students in an enriched and positive-thinking environment. He also describes specific areas of research that have important implications for learning and memory:
The hormonal brain: hormones can and
do impact cognition
"Too often children are given answers to remember rather than problems to solve." -Robert Lewin
Brain Based Teaching & Learning: Power Points, Articles, Principles, and more:
A Fresh Look At Brain Based Education by Eric Jensen also at: http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/k_v89/k0802jen.htm
Brain Books List (see also, sources & resources page)
The following is from : "Thinking Maps" by David Hyerle:
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Page Creator & Updater:: Mr. Clemens
Webmaster: Mr. Platt
Originally Created: April, 2006
Last Updated: March, 2011